The progressive revelation of Passover 유월절에 대한 점진적인 계시

One of my classmates of the Bible study, who adheres to Judaism said, “God could not be more clear that He expects us to observe Passover every year, forever, eating matzos and refraining from eating leavened bread.  The clear teachings of the Torah are eternal and apply to every time and place that we find ourselves in.”  One of the basis of her argument was that if God says something under the title of “eternal covenant,”  it is eternally binding and applies to every time and place.ancient seder  Well, let us reason together what the Bible says about “eternal covenant.” 유대교를 고수하지만, 함께 성경을 연구하는 친구가 이렇게 말했습니다. “하나님께서 당신의 백성들이 무교병을 먹으며 유월절을 해마다, 영원히, 지킬 것을 기대하시는 것은 너무나 당연하다. 율법의 가르침이 이렇게 명백하기에 그 말씀은 영원하며 모든 세대에, 우리가 속한 모든 장소에 영원히 적용된다.”  그녀의 논지의 중심에는 만약 하나님께서 “영원한 언약”이라고 명명하시면 그것은 영원히 적용되는 것이요, 모든 시간과 장소에서 다 지켜야한다는 것입니다.  자, 그럼 “영원한 언약”에 대해 성경은 무어라 말하는 지 함께 상고해 봅시다.

What does it mean that His eternal covenant is eternally binding?  Judaism seems to emphasize our reactions and obedience to the covenant.  So we must observe it forever.  However, the biblical concept of “covenant” may emphasize the opposite.  For example,  in Genesis 9, God made “eternal covenant” through rainbow after the Flood.  rainbow1He would not destroy the whole earth with waters anymore, forever.   And the focus is on God’s action toward living creatures, not on the obligations of the living creatures!  Actually there is nothing we can do in that covenant!  It is unilateral!  Neither it mentions of any consequences if violating.  So, in this case, the real purpose of the eternal divine covenant is not for us to observe the ritual but for us to REMEMBER who He is and what He has done.  Uniquely in this covenant, the purpose is for GOD to remember;

Whenever I bring clouds over the earth and the rainbow appears in the clouds, I WILL REMEMBER my covenant between me and you and all living creatures of every kind…     Whenever the rainbow appears in the clouds, I will see it and REMEMBER the everlasting covenant between God and all living creatures of every kind on the earth”  _Genesis 9:14-16

Take another example in Genesis 17.  God made an eternal covenant of circumcision with Abraham.  How many times do we see phrases like “I will make you great, I will give you this land, and I will be your God?”  The focus was not on the circumcision, it was on self-revelation of Hashem and His unilateral promises to Abraham and his descendants.  I love how they have cherished the tradition for thousands of  years.  If any Jew invite me to participate in Seder, I will and I want to keep it every year.   If i find myself on the Passover evening in the midst of the wilderness where i cannot find matzos, wine, or lamb, etc, i will still remember and worship what Hashem has done for us.  I thank them because their existence and their observance of the great biblical feasts for generations to generations prove that the story of the Bible is not just story but HISTORY.   It is true that rituals could help remembering, but ritual itself has no power to create a holy habit of remembering God.  I bet my Jewish friends know this more than i do.   The purpose of the eternal covenant is to REMEMBER and WORSHIP forever who He is and what He has done.

Since God’s intention in establishing the eternal covenant is for us to remember and worship, He does not impose the covenant as ‘fixed regulations and forever- unchangeable documents’ on us, expecting us to oberserve it literally, word for word.  For example, the contents of the Passover covenant vary as to the Israelites’ various locations such as Egypt, Mt.  Sinai, and wilderness, etc.  We see in Numbers 9 where God has supplemented the passover covenant as His people faced a new situation.  Some people could not observe the Passover because they were defiled by dead body, so they asked Moses what to do, and Moses asked God.Moses-the-prophet-like-Jesus-Christ_472_322_80

And Moses said unto them, Stand still, and I will hear what the LORD will command concerning you” (Numbers 9:8)

The Lord granted them to observe it next month! The divine covenant is FLEXIBLE although it is not FLUCTUATING.  Keeping the law correctly is less desirable than keeping the law faithfully to God.  The divine revelation is designed for our living relationship and long-lasting conversations with Him.  The father would want his children rather to keep the covenant WITH HIM than to keep by themselves silently.   The father reveals his heart gradually as his children grow and learn to ask how to interpret and apply to their situations in particular times and spaces.   Whatever God says in different times and different places, we must obey.  We cannot say “God, because you commanded at first to keep it on the fourteenth day of the first month, we will always keep it on the first month.  They cannot keep it on the second month!”  It does not mean God’s commandments only apply in certain times and places.  Rather, it means God reveals progressively His will without changing the core spirit of the covenant as long as we want to keep.  If God says “they will keep it on the second month,” they should keep it on the second month!   Again, Adonai is flexible enough to respond to our situations without compromising or annulling His covenant.

In Genesis 12, the Lord said to Abraham, “Go to the land that I WILL show you.”  Hashem did not reveal which land He would give, but Abraham obeyed in Haran.  When Abraham entered the land of Canaan, the Lord appeared and said, “unto thy seed, I will give THIS LAND.” Hashem revealed which land He would give this time in different place.  God progressively reveals His plan for the covenant as His servant proceeds in obedience.  Therefore, the “eternal covenant” is not so much about us who are eternally bound or eternally required to do as about eternal God who is eternally revealing His love and fulfilling His plan for us.

In this sense, I believe G_d has continued to reveal His will through the covenants, Moses, and prophets and finally Jeshua.  Then, we could better understand what Jeshua meant when He said, ” You have heard that it was said of them of old time… But I say unto you…”  

“Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to FULFIL.” ___ Matthew 5:17 

When the first century Jews who lived in the land of Israel heard this provocative phrases of Jeshua, they were able to distinguish their teachers and Jeshua.

“When Jesus had finished saying these things, the crowds were amazed at his teaching, because he taught as one who had authority, and not as their teachers of the law.”  __ Matthew 7:28-29

I believe that in the narrative of the Gospel of John 13:21-31 , we could find this divine character of divine revelations. seder with Jeshua   “Verily verily I say unto you, one of you shall betray me.”  Jeshua has revealed somewhat vaguely who would betray Him. Then He progressively revealed more specifically after the beloved disciple asked a question, “Lord, who is it?” “It is he to whom I will give this morsel of bread when I have dipped it.”  The intimate conversation between Jeshua and the beloved disciple in the bosom of Jeshua reflects the biblical episodes when Hashem reveals prophetic words and His will only to his beloved servants such as Abraham or Moses.

After giving the morsel to Judah,  Jeshua commands, “Do it QUICKLY”  and the verse 30 says, “So, after receiving the morsel of bread, he immediately went out.   And it was NIGHT.”   It is interesting because the way the Gospel writer narrates is almost same as Exodus.  It was the same Passover night in Egypt when Hashem commanded Israelites to eat quickly and go out.  The LAST Supper in Jerusalem seems to reconstruct the FIRST Seder in Egypt!  Judah Iscariot, therefore, symbolizes the Israelites who ate quickly and went immediately out of Egypt in the night.  However, it should be noted that the Exodus does not say that Hashem was glorified through the Israelites, but it says ‘through the Pharaoh and his army who chased Israelites!’Chariots-at-Red-Sea-Exodus-Gods-and-Kings-Is-it-Biblically-accurate-e1416284101485

“I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians so that they will go in after them. And I will gain glory through Pharaoh and all his army, through his chariots and his horsemen.”         __ Exodus 14:17

Do you see how the Torah describes?  Hashem gained glory through the enemy whose hearts were hardened by Hashem and who chased Israel.  Compare this to how the Gospel describes.

Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him.”       ___John 13:31

As Hashem hardened the hearts of Egyptians so that they chased Israel, Jeshua hardened the heart of Judah by giving him the morsel of bread and allowing the Satan enter into him so that Judah chased Jeshua.  As Hashem was glorified through Egyptians, The Son of Man was glorified through Judah and God was glorified in HIM.  So, the psychological condition and work of Judah corresponds to that of Egyptians.  “Hardened heart and chasing or persecuting.”

Overall, we come up with the double identity of Judah Iscariot.  On the one hand, He represents Israelites who ate quickly and went out of Egypt on the Passover night.  Spiritually, they are Jews who are in the Old Covenant; they are delivered and saved!  I hope this will unveil the blinded eyes of Christians.

On the other hand, he represents Egyptians whose hearts were hardened to chase Israel.  Spiritually, they are Jews whose hearts were hardened to chase Jeshua and people in the New Covenant;  I hoep this will unveil the blinded eyes of Jews.  Finally, in this spiritual logics, Jeshua represents all three: Hashem, Israel, and church.  Starting from the ancient Egypt on the Passover night, Hashem began to reveal progressively the Passover covenant throughout the history of Israel, and finally fulfilled it in the Passover night to extend the salvation to gentiles through the New Covenant.  In the last days, the Jews (spiritually Egyptians) will know that Jeshua is the Lord and Israel and church.

“And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.”    ___ Exodus 14:18

And I believe when the Messianic kingdom come here in Jerusalem, Adonai Eloheinu will eternally fulfill the passover covenant with us Jews and Christians in the eternal kingdom of God.  Listen what Jeshua said in the seder,

“for I say to you, I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”__ Luke 22:16
I can’t wait for the Messianic banquet the prophet Isaiah has spoken!messianic banquet
“The LORD of hosts will prepare a lavish banquet for all peoples on this mountain;
A banquet of aged wine, choice pieces with marrow,
And refined, aged wine.
And on this mountain He will swallow up the covering which is over all peoples,
Even the veil which is stretched over all nations.
He will swallow up death for all time,
And the Lord GOD will wipe tears away from all faces,
And He will remove the reproach of His people from all the earth;
For the LORD has spoken.

And it will be said in that day,
“Behold, this is our God for whom we have waited that He might save us.
This is the LORD for whom we have waited;
Let us rejoice and be glad in His    יְשׁוּעָה    salvation.”    __ Isaiah 25:6-8  






22 thoughts on “The progressive revelation of Passover 유월절에 대한 점진적인 계시

  1. Gene
    you said. “Since God’s intention in establishing the eternal covenant is for us to remember and worship, He does not impose the covenant as ‘fixed regulations and forever- unchangeable documents’ on us, expecting us to oberserve it literally, word for word.”
    God made a covenant with Noah = gentiles. He gave them 7 commandments. which of those are not ‘ fixed regulations and forever – unchangeable documents. here is the list.
    1.Do Not Deny God
    2.Do Not Blaspheme God
    3.Do Not Murder
    4.Do Not Engage in Incestuous, Adulterous or Homosexual Relationships.
    5.Do Not Steal
    6.Do Not Eat of a Live Animal
    7.Establish Courts/Legal System to Ensure Law Obedience

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks Larry for this comment. Could you tell me from what Scriptural basis you brought the list? If you are talking about the first half of Genesis 9, it seems to me that God give commandments only to Noah and his sons because there is no other guys who survived. And God did not give it as “eternal covenant” because there is no mention of it. I see No.6 on your list in verse 4 and No.3 is from verse 6? then it could be corrected as “If someone murders, he shall die?” Where are the other commandments given to Noah and gentiles in the Scriptures?

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Gean, the rules to which LarryB refers are found (in a form) in Acts 15, and in Paul’s letters. Before Jesus, before Christianity existed, (in Roman times) there were many non Jews who observed a small number of commandments for basic godly behavior, and attended synagogues, either as non Jews or as potential proselytes. They were called G-d fearers.

        Today, Judaism calls this the “noachide covenant,” and says it applies to all non Jews. Early Christian ethical manuals, (like the Didache) contain variants of these same rules for G-d fearing gentiles. It is not directly text based, (only vaguely) but was present in both Judaism and early Christianity.

        Liked by 1 person

      2. Gene, you said
        If you are talking about the first half of Genesis 9, it seems to me that God give commandments only to Noah and his sons because there is no other guys who survived.”

        God said he would demand an accounting from Each human.

        4 “But you must not eat meat that has its lifeblood still in it. 5 And for your lifeblood I will surely demand an accounting. I will demand an accounting from every animal. “”And from each human being, too, I will demand an accounting for the life of another human being.””

        How can God demand accountability from each human? Only if he meant ALL humans, eternal. God just destroyed all life and started over again with Noah.
        Do you really think God meant don’t murder temporarily?

        Gene, if you wish to understand the Torah you need to study theTorah with a rabbi.


        1. Good morning, Larry.
          Thank you for the clarification. You said,

          “How can God demand accountability from each human? Only if he meant ALL humans, eternal. God just destroyed all life and started over again with Noah.” Yes, i think this is a good observation of the text.

          Then, let me clarify what i said. God “spoke and gave commandments” only to Noah and three sons, EXPECTING them to share it with their wives and to pass down the commandments to all next generations.

          I don’t think God meant “Do not murder” temporarily. I think I will remember it and keep it as long as I live. However, if Hashem commands “murder” in a particular circumstance, i will obey and kill.

          For example, if God commands Abraham “to sacrifice Isaac as burnt offering,” he would obey unless God commands “stop.” If the Law commands the Israelites “to kill and wipe out the evil” in the wandering society, they would. If i were a member of the Joshua’s army, and God commands “utterly destroy man, woman, animals in the city” i will. Why? because Hashem commanded in that particular time and place.

          Now, in Jerusalem today, many Israelis and Jews suffer from terrors by Arabs in the Palestinian region. To wipe out the problem, they could follow the Law or commandments of Joshua by utterly destroying the residents here, but they rather choose to suffer to abide with them. Then, they break the commandment of the Law? No. I think Israelies today know the will of God which has been progressively revealed through the Law, prophets, Jeshua, rabbis, messianic Jews, and their own experience of human iniquities.

          Lastly, sorry this became too long, it seems to me that God’s emphasis in Genesis 9:6 is not on PROHIBITION of murdering like saying “do not murder,” rather the focus in on PENALTY of murdering like saying, “Whoever sheds human blood, by humans shall their blood be shed.” God had already known the poetential human sinfulness even in the renewed world?


      3. Gene
        you have changed your original article and have taken out the part concerning Noah that I had cut and pasted in my comments. When you change your story you should notif your readers that there was a correction on your part.
        Now about the covenant with Abrham: you said– “Genesis 17. God made an eternal covenant of circumcision with Abraham. How many times do we see phrases like “I will make you great, I will give you this land, and I will be your God?” The focus was not on the circumcision, it was on self-revelation of Hashem and His unilateral promises to Abraham and his descendants.”
        The covenant with Abraham was conditional. Circucimsion was a- Requirement of the covenant-. There was no covenant with out the circumsion so the circumcision was very much the focus for the Jewish people. Gen 17:14 And an uncircumcised male, who will not circumcise the flesh of his foreskin-that soul will be cut off from its people; he has broken My covenant.”
        You can go here:
        for a better understanding or try Wikpedia.


      4. Gene
        You said: “Lastly, sorry this became too long, it seems to me that God’s emphasis in Genesis 9:6 is not on PROHIBITION of murdering like saying “do not murder,” rather the focus in on PENALTY of murdering like saying, “Whoever sheds human blood, by humans shall their blood be shed.” God had already known the poetential human sinfulness even in the renewed world.”
        I disagree: 9:6 Whoever sheds the blood of man through man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of God He made man.
        Notice there would be no punishment without the breaking of the comandment. The punishment is death, and no penalty for the person who carries out the punishment. The focus is on the breaking of the comandment. Although I do not believe that the death penalty is always used. It does seem to say that it is ok if we did.
        Ask yourself, does god prefer punishment or does he prefer no death?


        1. Larry, i like you saying “there would be no punishment without the breaking of the comandment,” this is a fresh way of looking at the text. Yes, , it would be unnatural for God to declare penalty first before comandment right from the beginning of the new age and renewed world. Then, can we interpret the text verse by verse in this way?
          1. God bless 2. God promises 3. God allows (shedding the blood of animal?) 4. God commands (prohibition) 5. God’s punishment on violatoin 6. God’s reasoning? The first issue God and Noah’s family should have dealt with in that time, i guess, what to eat and what not to eat whether it involves murdering (shedding blood) or not. i think, to the creator of the universe, who just destroyed what he has created and starts again now, the human death by murdering must have been less important than defamation on the glory of God by crying out from the innocent blood on the renewed earth.


          1. Gene
            I’m trying to understand what you said here “the human death by murdering must have been less important than defamation on the glory of God by crying out from the innocent blood on the renewed earth.”


          2. Ok… sorry for vagueness. Let’s think about The context of Genesis 9. The judgement by the flood does not distinguish animals or humans. All lives of living creatures were taken by God. and right after this, the first cimmandments God wants to give is “Dont murder?” “Dont take life?” I dont think so. God had already taken many lives (may i say He murdered many men and animals?) the first commandments God desired to give would be “Multiply and live by eating! Fill the earth i created: decorate it by your habitation” You can slaughter animals and eat them to survive but dont eat the blood because life is in it. If man murder and shed blood of men, the man should also shed blood , otherwise, the innocent blood (Life, living Nefesh! Soul) will cry out, “God! why you dont vengence for me? why you let this happen?! What kind of world is this?!!” God’s fame will be damaged. God says and works for His self glorification. I believe God wanted the most the praise, glory, and worship from the new started world, not complaints from the innocent blood.


          3. Gene
            “(may i say He murdered many men and animals?) ” Yes you can and you might just be the first. I do not understand you at all. “God says and works for His self glorification. I believe God wanted the most the praise, glory, and worship from the new started world, not complaints from the innocent blood.” This is what you think g-d wants?


          4. Larry, I apologize for my imprudent comparison of God with the word ‘murder.’ May Hashem forgive me… I meant,”God judged and destroyed all men and animals. So, What God was trying to do that time seems to be not so much prohibiting humans from murder as receiving glory from human by silencing the cry of the innocent blood. And i believe that is what the text says and also believe God has continued to give the commandments humans not to murder by any form of communication such as the Law at Sinai, conscience, and tradition, etc.


    2. Gene
      My apologies I was Writing covenant and thinking commandments. No, not all covenants require humans to do something. But some do. Like the covenant with Abraham.

      Liked by 1 person

    1. I shared because i found the intriguing phrases in both Exodus 14 and the Gospel of John13 – “God gains glory through Egyptians whose hearts were hardened by Hashem and who chased Israel” “Jeshua and God gains glory through Judah whose heart was hardened and chased and persecuted Jeshua toward crucifixion” Also notice that Exodus 14: 4, 17, and 18, all three verses never say “God will gain glory when the Egyptians are drowned.” Neither the Gospel writer say “Jeshua is glorified when Judah die.” Both say glorification through those who have hardened heart and chase in the night; interestingly enough, both Egyptians and Judah died at early morning (Exodus 14:24, Matthew 27:1-5). Both allude to the soverignty of Hashem, who let things happen. For example, after Judah received the dipped morsel, he immediately went out. But the next verse (Jn 13:31) starts like this: “When he was gone out (Passive form)” It means God Made him go out. It was Hashem who made the Egyptians go out and chase Israelites. Whether the Exodus or Crucifixion, it is God’s doing for His self glorification. Isn’t it worth comparing?
      “For my own sake, for my own sake, I do this
      How can I let myself be defamed?
      I will not yield my GLORY to another” ___ Isaiah 48:11

      The Torah and the OT stands on its own? But as I posted it, doesn’t God reveal progressively? Even within the Torah, we see God reveals His will and supplements contents progressively on the previous revelations. Deuteronomy 1:5 says “East of the Jordan in the territory of Moab, Moses began to EXPOUND this law” If the Torah itself says it needs to be expound and needs fuller revelations, how much more the rest of the OT? Did Moses expound Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings? No he already died. God needed to send prophets and priests to expound it and through them the fuller divine revelation came.. Then who will expound Prophets and Ketuvim? I guess God revealed the fuller revelation through the Jewish sages like Qumran community and 1 century Messianic Jews of the New Covenant.

      “The progressive character of divine revelation is recognized in relation to all the great doctrines of the Bible… What at first is only obscurely intimated is gradually unfolded in subsequent parts of the sacred volume, until the truth is revealed in its fulness.” __ Charles Hodge

      The New Testament does not replace the Old Testament, rather it interprets, applies, and fulfills the Old Testament.

      “In the past God spoke to our forefathers through the prophets at many times and in various way, but in these last days He has spoken to us by His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, and through whom He made the universe” __ Hebrews 1:1


  2. Gean Guk, this is Yifeng, I want to make a comment regarding your comment on “covenant” (it’s such a coincidence – or may be not, that we talked about it this morning at class)

    I personally think the 8th day circumcision in Gen 17 fore-shadows the truth in NT Romans 9:9 “for this word is of promise, according to THIS TIME (the season of living, as per Genesis 18:10) I will come, and there will be a son to Sarah”

    The 8th day is the day of living – resurrection. It is the day to be rid of “the old man Adam as typed by the foreskin – which is flesh”. As much as it is a sign (we discussed, and thank you for your input, I was helped a lot) for the Jews to have it in flesh for G_d to give what he promised to them, it is also a sign for Christians to receive the covenant promise if we carry the sign of crucifixion of the old Adam in us – that is the co-death with Jeshua.

    It is at the time of living (which is not the future after our physical body go back to earth should Jeshua tarries, but at the very moment we identify ourselves with the crucifixion of our Savior and crucify the corrupted Adam within us) that the very eternal life of G_d (promised inheritance typed by Isaac) comes into us : “I will come, and there will be son to Sarah” . This in itself is the truth of the process of kept been born of the eternal life from above as book of John 3:5 declared:” Jeshua answered, Amen, Amen, I say unto you, except any one be born of water (the eternal Word) and Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of G_d”

    To me : for a covenant to be of force and realization, man has his part to do.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Yes, it is almost like a divine appointment! i’ve never thought of significance of the 8th day in light of the resurrection day. it is interesting because i always viewed the circumcision in relation with the Seder of Jeshua before the crucifixtion; because i compared the blood after circumcision and symbol of blood in wine at Seder. But as i looked at the text – Genesis 17 again, there is no mention of “blood” but “flesh!” So, the SIGN of the covenant (אות Gen. 17:11) may point to the Taking off the OLD FLESH, which Jeshua demonstrated in His resurrection..
      As the apostle Paul exclaimed in 1 Corinthians 15:54;
      “So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory.”

      Thank you!!


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